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Thank you for visiting.  Here you will find general information about cryopreservation, up to date information about our I.C.E. Vitrification system, and current topics in cryopreservation.  Please visit our Results page for more publications using our vitrification system.


We are happy to provide our newsletters that include tips and information to aid in your cryopreservation endeavors.  Please contact us for more details or if you have any questions about anything you find here. 

Cryopreservation (Cryobiology)

The only method of stable and long-term (practically infinite) preservation and storage of any perishable biological materials, particularly cells, is to keep them in the glassy (vitreous) state.  This was apparent to Father Luyet when he titled his pioneering work “The vitrification of organic colloids and of protoplasm” and “Revival of frog's spermatozoa vitrified in liquid air” (1, 2).  He and other “pioneers of the cryobiological frontiers” including Lovelock, Meryman, Mazur, Polge, Smith, Levitt, Farrant, and Willadsen, clearly understood some 40-70 years ago that only a glassy state would insure stable and non-lethal preservation of cells.  With time, we saw the development of a variety of biopreservation methods, such as slow-cooling (which is simply a way of achieving a glassy state inside the cell) (3).  It was Luyet’s work, which would make cryopreservation a science.  From the outset, he recognized that ice damage must be avoided and vitrification could be a method for long-term preservation of cell viability (2). 

IVF laboratories have been cryopreserving spare embryos for more than 30 years.  More than 50,000 babies have been born worldwide from thawed embryos.  There is no doubt that the technique can work and has great value in the IVF industry.  Today the field has changed quite markedly towards a quicker methodology; vitrification.  However, from a basic cryobiological standpoint nothing has really changed.  The slow-cooling methods we are familiar with are actually a method of vitrification.  Therefore we have been using vitrification for over 30 years, we just did not call it that.

Luyet B, Hodapp A. Revival of frog's spermatozoa vitrified in liquid air. Proc Meet Soc Exp Biol 1938;39:433-434.
Luyet B. The vitrification of organic colloids and protoplasm. Biodynamica 1937;1:1-14.
Katkov II, Bolyukh VF, Chernetsov OA, Dudin PI, Grigoriev AY, Isachenko V, et al. Kinetic Vitrification of Spermatozoa of Vertebrates: What Can We Learn from Nature? In: Current Frontiers in Cryobiology. Rijeka: InTech; 2012. p. 3-40.


Basic cryobiological principles presented in a simple, easy to understand manner.  Click here for the Basics.


For those who want a more in-depth explanation of cryopreservation.  Concepts are explained in detail.  This is a good review to gain an understanding of how and why cryopreservation/vitrification works.  Information is given in context of modern gamete and embryo storage techniques.  Click here for Advanced.


For those who want the nitty gritty cryobiological principles and theories.  We focus on a complete understanding of today's vitrification systems.  Click here for Expert.



Book Chapters:


           Vitrified human blastocysts - ICE Vitrification System

Vitrified mouse oocytes - ICE Vitrification System